However, women tend to use this relational knowledge precisely to establish their economic insertion, which requires undertaking various forms of cross-border movement on a daily basis. These mobilities differ from migration (if we think of it as a project of partial or definitive settlement in another country). A significant part of cross-border women live in their country of origin or develop bi-residential strategies. Although they face processes of Iceland Phone Number List social marginalization, overload and poverty that also affect women who migrate internationally to cities and towns far from national borders, the specificity of their condition refers to the way they use the daily border crossing to solve their problems. their productive and reproductive responsibilities. The intensity, You are the battlefield The historical link between the formation of Iceland Phone Number List Latin American nation-states, gender violence and international borders remained invisible in the social sciences and in history until the 1980s. Most of the hegemonic historiographies on nations or nationalism ignored gender relations as "irrelevant"6.
This overshadowed the role of Iceland Phone Number List women in the formation of central state structures, such as borders. On the other hand, in the process of constituting the border regions of the Latin American republics in the 19th century , these territories were represented as propitious for male domination, subjugation, penetration and material exploitation. The two triple frontiers where I carry out my ethnographic work –the Iceland Phone Number List Andean and the Paraná– are convincing examples. Both were defined after two violent war outcomes, the wars of the Pacific (1789-1883) and Paraguay (1864-1870). These conflicts instituted military confrontation as the main process of building national boundaries, naturalizing military (and male) violence as the current language of border territories.
Thus, a certain permissiveness of patterns Iceland Phone Number List of violent abuse of border populations in general, and of women in particular, was established: their domination, rape and/or extermination became a vehicle for the expression of the power of nation-states. Far from constituting a forgotten past, the juxtaposition between militarization, nationalization and gender violence is currently materializing in these spaces as a reiterative social tension. Research shows that this juxtaposition is currently reproduced in most of the Latin American borders.